Overall Length: 104 cm / 40.9 inch
Blade Length: 73 cm / 28.7 inch
Handle Length: 27 cm / 10.6 inch
Blade Material: 100%Handmade Folded Stell (Razor Sharp)
Saya Material: High quality Huali wooden Saya
Handle Material: Genuine ray skin + Hard wood
Craft: Hand Forged. Heat treatment, hardening, temper, anneal, quench, shaping, polishing etc
Polish & Sharpening:14 stages hand polished & sharpened
History Of Jian
Jian, a short thrusting weapon in ancient China, is normally constructed by two parts, Ren (blade) and Jing (tang). The protruding part in the middle of the blade is called Ji (ridge), the slope at both sides of ridge is cong, and the front pointed tip is Feng. The rounded knob at the end of tang is called pommel. In between blade and tang, there can be a Hushou (guard) to protect hands. Jian can be worn as well as hand carried.
Jian was originated at the end of Shang (16TH century - 18th century B.C.) and beginning of Zhou (11th century - 256 B.C.). During that time, jian was rather short and small, very similar to a dagger. It was mainly used for self-defense. However, it was seldom used in wars where chariot was widely involved.
In time of Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 B.C.), there were changes on the shape of bronze jian. The length was 28cm to 40cm longer. Till then, jian was highly valued by military strategists. As a result, it gradually emerged on the arena of wars. As jian was designed to thrust forward, it was not good for cutting. Jian was still not major weapon in chariot wars at that time.
Though with above facts, due to historical circumstances of Wu Yue region in southeast China, bronze jian became the major weapon of infantry in that area. The reason was the prevailing chariot war in central China was unable to take place in areas where there were rivers and lakes. To adapt into the situation, most formation of Wu Yue was infantry instead of chariot. And because jian was light, sharp and suitable for fighting at close quarters, it became the main short weapon of infantry. This situation resulted those techniques of casting jian in Wu Yue region was much advanced than countries in central China. After Wu Yue was perished by Chu, techniques were spread out in Chu. In time, Wu, Yue and Chu are regarded as "land of double-edged sword". Many beautiful legends and fairy-tales about jian are widely circulated and there are lots of legendary figures, among which Ou Ye Zhi, Feng Hu Zi, Gan Jiang and Mo Xie are most well-known.
One of the most treasured sword, Jian belonged to Gou Jian, King of Yue (), was unearthed in Hu Bei in 1965. Jian is 55.7cm in length, hilt is 8.4cm and blade is 4.6cm in width. Patter in diamond shape covers Jian. Both side of guard is mounted with blue glaze. On the blade near the guard, there are eight seal characters to remark the Jian only belonged to the King. This jian is well preserved and with very shape edge. Based on analysis, it is mainly made of tin bronze and a little lead and nickel. This Yue Wang Gou Jian Jian is considered as the state treasure of China.
During late Spring and Autumn period, iron jian started to emerge. However, it was still barely used in wars.
In Warring Period (475 - 221 B.C.), due to the declining usage of chariot and growing infantry, bronze jian was highly developed to equip the army. Technique of casting jian was much advanced. Jian with multi-layer and different level of lead content on ridge and edge began to produce. Blade of compounded jian with 10% lead appears in red and is not easily broken off. Edge with about 20% tin is fragile but hard, and extreme sharp. Some surfaces were treated with chromium and acid salt, some blades were carved with detailed patterns or birds and animal pictures. They could be decorated with gold gilt and gold inlay.In general, blade was made longer to between 80cm and 100cm. One example is bronze jians unearthed in Shan Xi, among which the shortest is 83.6cm and the longest 93.4cm (one of the longest bronze jians ever unearthed).
Along with the rising of smelting techniques, there was big development of iron jian during Warring Period. Blade is much longer than bronze jian procured previously or in the same period. Normal length is about 100cm, the longest is 140cm. Crafting is also highly advanced, some jian were well forged with solid pig iron by carburization to increase the hardness of the blade, and some water quenched to have sharper edges.
In early Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C - A.D. 24), iron jian began to replace bronze jian while iron weapon was further developed. By the reign of the Emperor Wu, bronze jian finally disappeared in wars due to the vast usage of iron jian. Crafting technique was one step forward. While edge was quenched to be hard and sharp, ridge was not in order to maintain certain degree of tenacity. Jian is therefore tough as well as soft, and able to last for a long time. Meanwhile, there were some significant changes of shape and functionality of Han jian. Angle of jian tip was widened and edge was flatter and sharper. Instead of thrusting, it was used to cut and chop.
By end of Eastern Han Dynasty (25 - 220), iron jian was completely replaced by the widely used iron dao with ring pommel. Since then, the nearly-800-year jian finished its mission of being a stander weapon of army.
Upon being withdrawn from the arena of wars, jian functioned with essential distinction. Firstly, it was worn as an ornament of the imperial regulation of carriage and uniform. In fact, habit of wearing jian has been in place since as early as the end of Western Zhou Dynasty and Spring and Autumn Period. Slave owners and nobles often showed off their wealth and status by wearing exquisite jians. Since then till Han Dynasty, jian was a simple of status as well as a daily worn weapon, a short and essential weapon for killing. But by the end of Eastern Dynasty, jian was solely worn as an ornament. Secondly, jian became a sports apparatus. In ancient China, jian belonged to short apparatus, which was mostly loved by folks. Ways of playing jian are to Pi (chop), Ci (thrust), Liao (raise), Dian (point), Beng (shoot), Yun (float), Jie (intercept) and Mo (bypass)etc. Based on swordsmanship, it was improved and re-organized to dancing and acrobatics, which turned into a unique ancient Chinese art. Finally, jian is also an all power amulet against evil because of being a mysteriously religious instrument. Jian has been covered with feudalism and superstition and appears in many fantastic and strange stories.